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Fifty Principal Nations of the World

(Actual Size: 6-7/8" x 11-1/8" - shown approx. 1/2 scale)
CLICK on any map to see the corresponding card as it was originally issued.

German Empire, Paraguay, Cuba, Dominion of Canada

(facing page)


       THE GERMAN EMPIRE is bounded E. by Russia and Austria; W. by France, Belgium and the Netherlands; N. by the North Sea, Jutland, and the Baltic; and S. by Switzerland and Austria.
       The Constitution of the Empire bears date April 16, 1871. By its terms, all the States of Germany "form an eternal union for the protection of the realm and the care of the welfare of the German people." The supreme direction of the military and political affairs of the Empire is vested in the King of Prussia, who in this capacity, bears the title of German Emperor. The Legislature consists of the Bundesrath, or Federal Council of the individual States, and the Reichstag, representing the German nation.
       Total area of the 25 States and of Alsace-Lorraine, 208,690 square miles, 94 per cent. of which is productive. Population, 45,234,000. The climate is characterised by great uniformity. Germany contains 50,000 square miles of wooded lands. The vine is extensively cultivated, and the best and most famous wines are produced on the Rhine. The cereals are rye, wheat, oats, buckwheat, ptoatoes and maize. Among the chief manufacturing products are woolens, cottons, silks, velvets, doeskins, hosiery, carpets, spun flax, lace, leather, paper, musical instruments, beer and brandy. Coal, iron, silver and copper are the principal minerals.
       Of colonies, properly so called, Germany has none; but she has declared her protection over various areas in Africa and the Western Pacific.
       From 1820 to 1889, over three and a half million German emigrants landed in the United States. Berlin, one of the finest cities of Europe, is the capital of the Prussian monarchy and of the German Empire.


      PARAGUAY ("the place of waters"), the only country in South America without any seaboard, is bounded on the W. by the Argentine Republic and on the E. by Brazil, and is bisected longitudinally by the Sierra Anambahy, a range from 1,000 to 2,000 feet high, which forms the watershed.
      Paraguay is a Republic, and by a new Constitution proclaimed 1870 (after the close of the five years' war with Brazil, the Argentine Confederation and Uruguay) the legislative authority is vested in a Congress of two houses, a Senate and a House of Deputies; the executive being entrusted to a President, elected for a term of four years, who exercises his functions through a cabinet of five responsible ministers, and has a non-active Vice-President at his side.
      The area is 92,000 square miles. Population 294,000. There are besides 60,000 semi-civilized and 70,000 uncivilized Indians. Asuncion is the capital.
      The climate though hot and unsuited to European colonization, is on the whole healthy, except in the marshy districts. The vegetation is luxuriant, and the forests yield splendid timber and many kinds of ornamental woods. Alligators swarm in the rivers, and insect life is abundant to the furthest limit of human endurance.
      In the first three months of 1890 there were 777 immigrants, of whom 269 were Italians, 162 Spaniards, and 138 French.
      Paraguay is a fine grazing country and possesses large herds of cattle. The chief agricultural products, besides yerba maté (or Paraguay tea) and tobacco, are maize, rice, wheat mandioca and cotton. The chief exports are yerba maté, hides and skins.


      CUBA, "the Pearl of the Antilles," and the one colony of importance belonging to Spain, is the largest and wealthiest island of the West Indies, and is about 150 miles distant from the two great peninsulas of Florida and Yucatan. It was discovered by Columbus 28th October, 1492, and was occupied by the Spanish in 1511.
      The area is 43,220 square miles, ten per cent. of which is cultivated, seven per cent. is unreclaimed, and four per cent. is under forests. There are large tracts of country still unexplored. Cuba is divided into three provinces, the southeast and central being the richest and most populous. Above Trinidad, on the S. coast, the rugged mountain masses are not without grandeur, while the rare beauty of the coast and inland scenery is unsurpassed by that of the most renowned of the Mediterranean lands. The western department contains almost all the great sugar factories and tobacco plantations.
      The population in 1877 was 1,521,684, of whom 977,992 were Spaniards, 10,632 foreign whites, 43,811 Chinese, and 489,249 negroes. In 1886 slavery was absolutely abolished.
      The capital, Havana, the principal city in the West Indies, is the key to the Mexican Gulf, and has one of the finest harbors in the world. It is unsurpassed by any city in the world for its beautiful public parks, shady drives and promenades, and numerous fountains.
      The principal productions are sugar, tobacco, coffee, rice and cotton. The sugar cultivation is the most profitable. Large quantities of honey, rum, wax, tobacco, cigars and hard-wood are exported from Havana.


      THE DOMINION OF CANADA, the most extensive of the British colonial possessions, is practically co-extensive with British N. America, and is composed of the seven provinces of Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Manitoba, British Columbia and Prince Edward Island.
      The Constitution, according to Act of Confederation, is similar in principle to that of the United Kingdom; the executive authority being vested in the Sovereign of Great Britain and Ireland, and carried on in her name by a Governor-General and Privy Council; and the legislative in a Parliament of two Houses called the "Senate" and the "House of Commons."
      Area, 3,205,344 square miles. Population at census of April 3, 1881, 4,324,810.
      The climate is generally more extreme, both in summer and winter, than that of corresponding latitudes in Europe, but the most populous provinces are extremely healthy.
      The country is one of vast lakes and magnificent rivers, including the mighty St. Lawrence. The great Horse-shoe Fall is on the Canadian side of the Niagara river.
      Canada is rich in the extent and variety of her minerals and rocks and in the extent of her forests. The coal-bearing area extends over 65,000 miles. The grain produce consists of oats, wheat, rye, barley, maize and pulse. There are most valuable fisheries of cod, herrings, salmon, lobsters and other fish.
      The leading exports are lumber, cheese, horned cattle, horses, sheep, barley, wheat, oats, fish, including fish oils and furs and skins of fish, coal, gold-quartz and nuggets.
      Montreal is the great commercial centre. Quebec, strongly fortified, lies picturesquely on a rocky plateau on the left bank of the St. Lawrence.