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Fifty Principal Nations of the World

(Actual Size: 6-7/8" x 11-1/8" - shown approx. 1/2 scale)
CLICK on any map to see the corresponding card as it was originally issued.

Chili, Denmark, Peru, Turkey

(facing page)


      CHILI or CHILE, on the W. coast of South America, has a coast line of 1500 miles and includes several islands. Cape Horn is the most southerly point, the extremity of an island of the same name, and which is a bare precipitous rock, with a perennially Antarctic climate. The country stretching N. & S. in a long, narrow strip, is cut off from the rest of the continent by the Andes, which here form a magnificent ridge. It consists of numerous offsets of the great range, and of intervening valleys of great fertility and beauty, which open upon the sea.
      The Republic revolted against Spain in 1813 and won its independence in 1818, and has since, in spite of repeated internal dissensions, firmly established its position as the most stable and enlightened of the S. American governments.
      The legislative power is vested in the National Congress, consisting of two assemblies, called the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies, and the executive is exercised by a President, elected for a term of five years, and assisted in his functions by a Council of State and a Cabinet or Ministry.
      The approximate area is 210,000 square miles. Population 2,223,000. The territory of Autofagasta was taken from Bolivia in 1879-80; and Tarapaca, the nitre province, ceded by Peru, October 20, 1887, since which date a large amount of British capital has been employed in developing the nitre industry. About one and one-half millions of the population are engaged in agriculture. The principal minerals are gold, silver, copper, lead, iron, tin, coal and precious stones.
      Santiago is the capital, the country surrounding which is exceedingly fertile, the climate delightful, and the views of the not far distant Andes magnificent.


      DENMARK, in the N. of Europe, embraces the peninsula of Jutland and the islands Seeland, Moen, Fünen, Laaland, Falster, Bornholm, etc. The surface of mainland and islands alike is singularly flat, and is elevated but little above the level of the sea.
      The climate is somehwat severer than that of Britain, but is free from violent extremes.
      By the Constitution the executive power is in a hereditary King and his responsible Ministers, and the legislative in the Rigsdag or Diet, comprising two Houses.
      The area of Denmark, including the Faeroe Islands, is 14,780 square miles, of which 80 per cent. is productive. Population, 1,960,000, nearly one-half of whom live exclusively by agriculture, the other half living by manufacturing industries, trade, seafaring and fishing.
      The Danes belong to the Scandinavian branch of the Teutonic family. They are a strong, muscular people, with regular features, light hair and blue eyes.
      The chief exports are pork, butter, eggs, lard, live animals, grain, flour, hides, leather and gloves. Jutland has a celebrated breed of horses, admirably adapted for light cavalry. There is a considerable emigration from Denmark, chiefly to the United States.
      The Colonial possessions of Denmark consist of Iceland, Greenland and the West Indian Islands of St. Croix, St. Thomas and St. John, with a total area of 86,614 square miles and a population of 115,988.
      Copenhagen ("merchant's haven"), the capital, has a splendid harbor, is rich in museums of antiquities, natural history, numismatics, &c., and contains some of the masterpieces of Thorswalden, the famous Danish sculptor.


      PERU.--The Republic of Peru, formerly the most important of the Spanish Viceroyalties in South America, declared its independence July 28th, 1821. The present Constitution, revised November, 1860, is modelled on that of the United States, the legislative power being vested in a Senate and House of Representatives, and the executive being entrusted to a President, elected for four years, who exercises his functions through a Cabinet of five ministers.
The area is 425,000 square miles, and the population (including about 350,000 uncivilized Indians) 3,050,000. Lima, the metropolis, is one of the gayest and grossest capitals in the world.
      The scenery of Peru is probably unique for imposing grandeur and variety, a distinction due to the singular contour of its surface. Within its limits are to be found a number of the loftiest mountain peaks, the most stupendous precipices and ravines, the most arid and desolate plateaux, and the most fruitful tropical valleys to be met with in the world.
      Peru is pre-eminent over all South American countries for the frequency and violence of its earthquakes.
      The staple productions of Peru are cotton, coffee, cocoa, rice, sugar, tobacco, wines and spirits and maize. Besides these there are in the country India rubber, cinchona, dyes, medicinal plants and balms and the wool of the alpaca and the vicuña. The guano deposits are to a great extent exhausted, the quantity exported to Great Britain being only 6,064 tons in 1889 as against 156,864 tons in 1876, and the nitrate province of Tarapaca now belongs to Chili. Gold mining is now inconsiderable, but silver, copper and tin are still worked.


      TURKEY, or Ottoman Empire, one of the largest and most populous States of the Old World, consisting of adjacent parts of southeastern Europe, Western Asia and Northern Africa.
      The fundamental laws of the Empire are based on the Koran, and the will of the Sultan is absolute, in so far as not in opposition to the accepted truths of the Mahometan religion. The legislative and executive authority is exercised under the supreme direction of the Sultan, by two high dignitaries, the Grand Vizier and the "Sheik-ul-Islam." The whole of the empire is divided into governments, subdivided into provinces and districts.
      European Turkey is represented on accompanying map. Area, 63,800 square miles. Population, 4,490,000. It is for the most part mountainous, but with richly varied scenery; its fertility is boundless, and its climate, as a whole, is genial and healthy. Only a small proportion of arable land is under cultivation, and the system of agriculture is most primitive. The Turkish peasant is industrious, ignorant and submissive. The principal products are tobacco, cereals of all kinds, cotton, figs, nuts, almonds, grapes, olives, and all variety of fruits. Coffee, madder, opium and gums are largely exported. Other exports are wools, silks, carpets, morocco leather, meerschaum, attar of roses, drugs and dyestuffs. The want of roads and means of conveyance are great obstacles to cultivation and trade.
      Constantinople, the capital, and metropolis of the empire, is the residence of the Turkish Sultan, whose seraglio or palace, is of vast extent. Of its 344 mosques, the most interesting in Constantinople is that which was formerly the Church of St. Sophia.