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Fifty Principal Nations of the World

(Actual Size: 6-7/8" x 11-1/8" - shown approx. 1/2 scale)
CLICK on any map to see the corresponding card as it was originally issued.

Scotland, United States of Colombia, Austria, Sweden and Norway

(facing page)


      SCOTLAND, the country forming the northern and smaller portion of the island of Great Britain, is bounded N. by the Pentland Firth, E. by the North Sea, W. by the Atlantic, and S. by the Irish Sea, the Solway Firth and by England. For the most part mountainous, Scotland has many extensive level tracts of great fertility. It is divided roughly into the Highlands and the Lowlands. It comprises numerous islands, and the E. coast is indented by deep, wide inlets, and the W. fretted by long, narrow arms of the sea, called lochs. Of the numerous lakes, the largest and finest is Loch Lomond, and the most romantic, Loch Katrine (the lake of Sir Walter Scott's "Lady of the Lake").
      The climate is very variable, but has no great extremes.
      The area, including islands, is 29,820 square miles. Population, census 1881, 3,735,573. The Scotch have acquired the highest reputation as agriculturists. Nearly three-fourths of the acreage under corn crops is oats. Sheep and cattle are chiefly reared in the Highlands. In 1889, 23,217,163 tons of coal were mined.
      Scotland contains some of the largest iron works in the Kingdom. Slate, granite, marble and sandstone abound. Scotch pebbles are a specialty. The Clyde ports are world-famed for the construction of steam vessels. The textile industries are very extensive, as cotton, woolens, jute, linens, damasks, tweeds, tartans and carpets. 52,000 men are engaged in the fisheries.
      Edinburgh, the capital, is famous for its picturesque beauty. The Castle Rock, 380 feet in height, crowned by the Castle, towers above the gardens of Princes street, on one side of which stands Sir Walter Scott's monument. The thistle is the national badge.


      THE UNITED STATES OF COLOMBIA, formerly New Granada, has been known as the Republic of Colombia since the promulgation of the New Constitution of August 4, 1886, when the sovereignty of the nine States was abolished and they became departments, their presidents, elected by ballot, being reduced to governors under the direct nomination of the President of the Republic, whose term of office has been prolonged from two to six years. The legislative power rests with a Congress of two Houses called the Senate and the House of Representatives. This Republic is bounded N. by the Caribbean Sea, S. by Ecuador and Brazil, E. by Venezuela, and W. by the Pacific, and in the W. is traversed by the great triple range of the Andes. The capital, Bogotą, lies 9,000 feet above the sea. The area, 320,000 square miles. Population, 3,000,000.
      There is every variety of climate, from the tropical heat of the coasts to the intense cold of the region of perpetual snow. Of the products, which are rich and various, the chief are tobacco, sugar, coffee, mahogany, cinchona bark, ipecacuanha, &c. But its mineral wealth is more important, consisting of gold, platina, silver, copper, coal, amber, &c. Among the industries, which are all somewhat primitive, the chief are agriculture, cattle-breeding and mining. In the central districts European horses and cattle flourish.
      The direct commerce is greatly exceeded by the transit trade passing through the two ports of Panama and of Colon or Aspinwall, which, united by railway, connect the Atlantic with the Pacific Ocean. The ship canal across the Isthmus of Panama has not yet been completed.


      THE EMPIRE OF AUSTRIA lies in the heart of Europe, and is, next to to Russia, the largest country in it. Since 1867 the empire has been dualistic in form; embracing a German State, called Austria Proper, and the Magyar Kingdom of Hungary. These two divisions have distinct laws and separate parliaments and governments, but are united in a common parliament (called the Delegations) consisting of 120 members, to which each returns an equal number of representatives. The common head in the Austro-Hungarian monarchy is the Emperor (Kaiser) of Austria and King of Hungary, who summons the Delegations annually, alternately at Vienna and Buda-Pesth.
      The Austrian dominions have an area of 264,950 square miles, with a population of 39,196,000.
      The climate is generally warm and healthy, but necessarily varies much over so wide an area. Grain of all kinds is abundantly produced in Hungary, Bohemia, Moravia and other parts. The vine is cultivated, and the wine of Hungary called Tokay is famous. For many centuries mining has been a principal occupation. Gold, silver and other metals are found, and the precious stones are numerous. The chief manufactures are silks, woolens, cottons, linens, twist and iron goods. The glass industry is of great importance in Bohemia, there being 5,423 works of various kinds, with nearly 30,000 workpeople. Enormous quantities of beer are brewed, the export of which is ten times the import.
      Vienna, the capital of Austria, is situated on a branch of the Danube, Pesth, properly Buda-Pesth, the capital of Hungary, is on the left bank of the Danube, opposite Buda, with which it is connected by a suspension bridge.


      SWEDEN & NORWAY form the great peninsula of Scandinavia in the N. of Europe, washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea on the W., and by the Baltic and the Gulf of Finland on the E.
      In 1814 the crown of Norway was united with that of Sweden, without prejudice, however, to the separate government, constitution, and code of laws of either country.
      In Sweden, the King possesses legislative power in matters of political administration, but in all other respects, that power is exercised by the Diet, or parliament of the realm, in concert with the Sovereign. This Diet consists of two chambers elected by the people.
      In Norway, the constitution vests the legislative power in the Storthing or Great Court, the representative of the sovereign people, the King having a qualified right of veto.
      United area 299,610 square miles. Population, 6,497,000.
      After Russia and Finland, Sweden has more forest land in proportion to its area than any country of Europe, and mining is one of the most important departments of Swedish industry.
      In proportion to population, Norway has the largest commercial navy in the world, and its great cod and herring fisheries are the main source of its national wealth. The chief exports of the realm are wood and timber, iron, steel, oats, wheat, barley, cattle, butter, fish, ice and paper.
      Stockholm, the capital of Sweden, is built partly upon islands, partly on the mainland. Its beautiful situation has gained for it the name of 'Queen of the Baltic.' Christiania, the capital of Norway, is romantically situated on the innermost bay of the Christiania Fiord.