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Massachusetts, Vermont, Kentucky, New Jersey

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    MASSACHUSETTS has an extreme length, from northeast to southwest, of about 160 miles; a breadth varying from 47 miles in the western to about 100 miles in the eastern part, and an estimated area of 8,315 square miles, or 5,321,600 acres.
    The Elizabeth Islands, Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, and some smaller islands, lying to the south, belong to the State.
    The seacoast is extremely irregular and deeply indented, and there are numerous good harbors.
    Of the large rivers, the Merrimac alone falls into the sea within the limits of the State.
    Nearly all the rivers afford valuable water power, but none are navigable, except the Merrimac.
    This State leads all the other States in its manufacture of paper and leather, largely owing to the wise development of its water power.
    The capital, Boston (playfully denominated by Holmes the "Hub of the universe"), is famed for its cultured society.
    Population in 1880, 858,440 males and 924,645 females, of whom 1,339,594 were of native and 443,491 of foreign birth; white, 1,763,782; colored, 19,303 including 229 Chinese, 8 Japanese and 369 Indians.
    Estimated population in 1890, 2,072,000.


    VERMONT has a length, north and south, of about 150 miles; a breadth of from 35 to 50 miles, and an area of 9,565 square miles, or 6,121,600 acres. The Green Mountains intersect the State from north to south, and contain a number of peaks from 3,000 to 4,500 feet high.
    Lake Champlain extends for 105 miles along the western border, and receives many small rivers and creeks.
    The Connecticut is the only navigable river.
    Lake Champlain, 126 miles in length, and from 40 rods to 15 miles in width, has a depth of from 50 to nearly 300 feet, and is navigable throughout by the largest vessels.
    The State is extremely healthy; miasmatic diseases are entirely unknown; pulmonary complaints much less common than in the coast states in the same latitude, and the death rate is very low, being only 1.07 per cent per annum.
    Population in 1880, 166,887 males and 165,399 females, of whom 291,327 were native and 40,959 of foreign birth; white, 331,218; colored 1,068, including 11 Indians.
    Estimated population in 1890, 333,000.


    KENTUCKY has an area of 40,400 square miles, or 25,856,000 acres; its greatest length, east and west, being 350 miles, and its greatest breadth 178 miles. The whole of Kentucky lies within the Mississippi basin, and it is essentially a table land, sloping gradually from the southeast to the northwest.
    Kentucky is amply provided with large rivers, the Ohio and Mississippi being navigable all along its boarders, and the Big Sandy, Cumberland, Licking, Kentucky, Green, Salt, Big Barren, Tennessee, and other important streams, flowing through the State. Kentucky possesses one of the greatest natural curiosities in the world in the Mammoth Cave, which is situated in Edmonson County, near Green River, and is the largest cavern known.
    The City of Louisville, the principal city of the State, is situated at the Falls of the Ohio, and is rapidly increasing in wealth and population, and from its geographical position is the distributing centre, not only for the great products of the State--tobacco and whiskey--but also for the immense supplies of "Arbuckles' Ariosa Coffee" which its people consume.
    Population in 1880, 832,590 males and 816,100 females, of whom 1,589,173 were of native and 59,517 of foreign birth; white, 1,377,179; colored, 271,511.
    Estimated population in 1890, 2,200,000.


    NEW JERSEY has an extreme length, north and south, of 157 miles; a breadth of from 37 to 70 miles, and an area of 7,815 square miles, or 5,001,600 acres.
    The highest ground is found in the northwest, where the Blue Mountains attain an elevation of from 1,000 to 1,750 feet.
    The centre of the State is an undulating plain, and the southern division is low and level.
    The Hudson forms a part of the eastern border, and the Delaware River and Bay the western. The Atlantic coast line is 120 miles long, and the water frontage on Delaware Bay is almost as great, while the Hudson River and the Raritan, Newark and New York bays afford splendid harbor facilities.
    The most noticeable natural features of the State are the peculiar gorge or cut through the Blue Mountains, known as the Delaware Water Gap, and the Falls of the Passaic, at Patterson.
    It has many watering places on the Atlantic coast, including Long Branch, Squan Beach, Atlantic City and Cape May, which are among the most popular summer resorts in the East, which is largely owing to their use of "Arbuckles' Ariosa Coffee."
    Population in 1880, 559,922 males and 571,194 females, of whom 909,416 were of native and 221,770 of foreign birth; white, 1,092,017; colored, 39,099, including 170 Chinese, 2 Japanese, 74 Indians and 2 East Indians.
    Estimated population in 1890, 1,500,000.