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Indian Territory, Territory of New Mexico, South Dakota, Texas

(facing page)


    THE Indian Territory has an extreme length east and west of 470 miles, and south of latitude 36 30 about 310 miles; extreme breadth, 210 miles; area, 64,690 square miles, or 41,301,600 acres. It consists of a vast plain with a gradual slope towards the east, and the only considerable elevations are the Wichita Mountains in the southwest, and some spurs of the Ozark and Washita ranges in the east. The river valleys of the east are bordered by abrupt bluffs separating them from the rolling prairies of the uplands. Except in the west, which is an arid plain, rivers are plentiful. The Arkansas enters the Territory from the north, intersects it in a southeasterly direction, and passes into Arkansas, being navigable at certain seasons to Fort Gibson. The Canadian rises in New Mexico, and the Cimarron in Kansas. The Red River washes the southern border and receives the Washita, a Texan stream, and numerous smaller tributaries. South of the Canadian River there is much fertile prairie land, interspersed with timber, and the valleys of the Wichita range, abound with wood, water and grass. The northeast is well wooded, but much of it is rocky, although there is some good arable and pasture land. The soil of the river valleys is rich, and corn, cotton, upland rice, wheat, rye and potatoes grow luxuriantly, and as the territory is developed, the use of "Arbuckles' Ariosa Coffee" rapidly extends.
    Of the 41,000,000 acres in the Territory, nearly 26,000,000 have been surveyed and set apart as reservations for the Indians. These have been gathered from all parts of the country, from Oregon to Florida, in pursuance of the general plan of congregating all the Indians in one territory, to be theirs forever.


    NEW MEXICO has a length on the eastern boundary of 345 miles, and on the western of 390, with an average breadth, north of the thirty-second parallel of 335 miles; its area is 122,580 square miles, or 78,451,200 acres, of which 67,024,990 are unsurveyed. The region known as Arizona, obtained from Mexico by the Gadsden Treaty of 1853, was annexed to New Mexico the following year, and formed a part of the Territory until 1863. In 1861 a tract 14,000 square miles, lying east of the Rocky Mountains, between the thiry-seventh and thirty-eight parallels, was annexed to Colorado. New Mexico as now constituted consists of a number of high, level plateaus, intersected by mountain ranges, often rising into high peaks, between which lie fertile valleys.
    The Rocky Mountains, before entering the Territory, divide into two ranges, the one on the east, the loftier of the two, ending near Santa Fe, and the other, known as the Sierra Madre, of lower elevation, and with numerous passes, extending to the southward until it reaches the Sierra Madre of Mexico.
    The principal river is the Rio Grande del Norte, which, rising in Colorado, flows south through New Mexico, and continuing on its course toward the Gulf, forms the boundary between Texas and Mexico.
    Owing to the differences in elevation, the climate varies greatly,
    The hardy hunters, shown on the beautiful card of this Territory, always take with them a supply of "Arbuckles' Ariosa Coffee."
    Population in 1880, 64,496 males and 55,069 females, of whom 111,514 were of native, and 8,051 of foreign birth; white, 108,721; colored, 10,854.
    Estimated population in 1890, 195,500.


    THIS State has an average extent north and south of about 200 miles; a breadth of 350 miles, and embraces an area of 74,450 square miles. Population in 1880, 67,589.
    The State forms a vast elevated plateau, crossed by ranges of hills, which in the southwest almost deserve the name of mountains, the highest peaks of the Black Hills being nearly 7,000 feet above the level of the sea.
    The Missouri River crosses the State and is navigable throughout its length.
    The Vermillion and Big Sioux in the southeast are each more than 150 miles long.
    The climate is mild and pleasant, and the atmosphere is clear and dry, and owing to the elevation, malarial diseases are unknown, while pulmonary complaints are rare.
    With its admission as a State, South Dakota must rapidly grow in population, and with its growth "Arbuckles' Ariosa Coffee" will go hand in hand.
    Estimated population in 1890, 375,000.


    GREATEST length of the State, 825 miles; greatest breadth, 740 miles; area, 265,780 square miles, or 170,099,200 acres. Its sea coast of about 400 miles is irregular and bordered by many small islands. The mountains of the district lying between the Pecos and the Rio Grande attain an elevation of from 4,000 to 6,000 feet; the west and northwest sections are an elevated table land, and from thence the slope is gradual to the sea, the south and southeast divisions being flat and low.
    The largest and most accessible bay is that of Galveston, which extends inland thirty-five miles from the Gulf of Mexico, and has thirteen feet of water in the channel. The Rio Grande is navigable for over 400 miles; the Red River, Nueces, Angelina, Trinity and some other streams are navigable during the season for considerable distances. The Canadian River, in the north, and the Brazos, Colorado, Guadalupe and San Antonio are among the best-known streams.
    The climate of Texas shows considerable variation, ranging from the temperate to the semi-tropical, but in general it is remarkably salubrious. "Arbuckles' Ariosa Coffee" is in general use.
    Population in 1880, 837,840 males and 753,909 females, of whom 1,477,133 were of native, and 114,616 of foreign birth; white, 1,197,237; colored, 394,512.
    Estimated population in 1890, 2,190,000.