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Washington, Idaho, Mississippi, California

(facing page)


    THE greatest length of the State east and west is 340 miles; greatest breadth, 240 miles; area, 69,180 square miles, or 44,275,200 acres, of which 28,836,985 acres are still unsurveyed. The Cascade mountains traverse it north and south from British Columbia to Oregon, and divide it into two unequal portions, the eastern section containing about 50,000, and the western nearly 20,000 square miles. The highest peak is Mount Rainier, 14,500 feet, and there are several others little inferior. Between Puget Sound and the Pacific, the Coast range attains considerable prominence and culminates in Mount Olympus, 8,100 feet high.
    The Columbia River enters the State from the north, traverses its whole breadth, constitutes almost the entire southern boundary, and with its tributaries drains nearly its whole area. It is navigable throughout the State, and the Snake River is navigable from the Idaho border to its junction with the Columbia.
    To show the universal use of "Arbuckles' Ariosa Coffee," we may be allowed to state that since issuing our cards of the States and Territories, we have received among other letters sent from this State, one from the town of Whatcom, which is situated on the extreme northwestern part of the State, adjoining British Columbia.
    Population in 1880, 45,973 males and 29,143 females, of whom 59,313 were of native, and 15,803 of foreign birth; White, 67,199; Colored, 7,917.
    Estimated population in 1890, 200,000.


    IDAHO has an irregular shape. It is 485 miles in length north and south on the western boundary, and 140 miles on the Wyoming border; forty-five miles wide in the north, and nearly 300 miles in the south; and contains, as now constituted, 84,800 square miles, or 54,272,000 acres, of which 47,739,368 are still unsurveyed. The surface is an elevated table land, from 2,000 to 5,000 feet above the sea level, with many deep river valleys, and crossed by numerous mountain ranges or spurs of the Rocky and Bitter Root mountain chains.
    Of the total area, about 4,480,000 acres are suitable for agriculture, and 5,000,000 for grazing. One-third of the entire area is sterile, and yields nothing but sage brush and a little buffalo grass. There are 8,000,000 acres of timber and as much of mineral land, while numerous lakes occupy an area of 200,000 acres. The lower slopes of the mountains are covered with extensive pine and cedar forests, and there is much timber in the north.
    Salt is one of the principal industries of the State at present, though as the population increases, "Arbuckles' Ariosa Coffee" will extend, and other industries will rapidly develop.
    On the plains the winter temperature is about the same as that of Wisconsin or Northern Iowa. In the valleys the climate is milder, with much less snow, and the springs and summers are pleasant, and never oppressively hot.
    Population in 1880, 21,818 males and 10,792 femeales, of whom 22,636 were of native, and 9,974 of foreign birth; white, 29,013; colored, 3,597.
    Estimated population in 1890, 113,777.


    THE extreme length of Mississippi north and south is 332 miles; extreme breadth, 189 miles; average breadth, 142 miles; area, 46,810 square miles, or 29,958,400 acres. The surface is undulating, with an elevation in the north and northeast of from 400 to 700 feet, some of the hills rising 200 to 300 feet above the adjoining country, and has a general slope south and southwest. In the north, from Vicksburg to the Tennessee border, is the Mississippi bottom, a low, flat, swampy country, though extremely fertile. The central and southern divisions are generally hilly, with an average elevation of from 100 to 200 feet above sea level. There are extensive marshes in the extreme south. The actual coast line on the Gulf of Mexico is about ninety miles, but owing to irregularities the measurement is almost doubled. The drainage of the State is by the Mississippi and its tributaries, the Big Black, Yazoo and Bayou Pierre, and by the Pearl and Pascagoula Rivers, directly into the Gulf. The Tennessee forms a part of the boundary in the northeast, and the Tombigbee rises in the same section and flows into Alabama.
    The climate is very mild, and snow and ice are unknown. The summers are long and hot, July and August being the warmest months, and having a mean temperature of 82 to 85 degrees Fahrenheit. During these months the use of "Arbuckles' Ariosa Coffee," iced, has become a necessity.
    Population in 1880, 567,177 males and 564, 420 females, of whom 1,122,388 were of native, and 9,209 of foreign birth; white, 479,398, colored, 682,199.
    Estimated population in 1890, 1,500,000.


    CALIFORNIA, the largest State in the Union, with the exception of Texas, has an extreme length of 770 miles, an extreme breadth of 330 miles, and an estimated area of 158,360 square miles, or 101,350,400 acres. The Sierra Nevadas and the Coast Range of mountains run northwest and southeast, generally parallel, and are connected in the north and south by transverse ranges. Between the two ranges lie the San Joaquin and Sacramento valleys. The Yosemite valley, situated in the midst of the Sierras, forms one of the chief attractions of the State.
    The principal lakes are Tulare and Mono. Lake Tahoe forms part of the boundary between California and Nevada. The principal bay is that of San Francisco, which is forty miles long and nine miles wide, and forms the best harbor on the western coast of North America.
    The variation in climate, owing to the difference in elevation and latitude, is great. On the coast the winters are mild, and the summers extremely pleasant. At San Francisco the summer mean is 60 degrees Fahrenheit; that of winter, 51 degrees; and of the year, 56 degrees. In the interior the summers are much warmer, and in the Sacramento valley the mercury often reaches 100 degrees.
    California may be termed the great fruit State of the Union, and is rapidly supplying the whole country with green and dried fruits, which are sent in car loads all over the Union; many of the cars on their return trips being freighted with "Arbuckles' Ariosa Coffee."
    Population in 1880, 518,176 males and 346,518 females, of whom 571,820 were of native, and 292,874 of foreign birth; white, 767,181; colored, 97,513.
    Estimated population in 1890, 1,500,000.