ARBUCKLES' ILLUSTRATED ATLAS
Fifty Principal Nations of the World
(Actual Size: 6-7/8" x 11-1/8" - shown approx. 1/2 scale)
CLICK on any map to see the
corresponding card as it was originally issued.
The Netherlands, Arabia, China, Afghanistan
THE KINGDOM OF THE NETHERLANDS (low
lands) or Holland, lies to the north of
Belgium and to the east of the North Sea.
In many parts the surface is below the
level of the adjacent canal, or river,
and even of the sea. A great part of the
coast is defended by sand hills, which
the natives protect by sowing them with
binding grasses, and in other places
enormous dykes have been built.
Constitution the Netherlands forms a
Constitutional and hereditary monarchy.
The executive power belongs exclusively
to the Sovereign, while the whole
legislative authority rests conjointly in
the Sovereign and Parliament, the latter,
called the States-General, consisting of
of the Netherlands is 12,740 square
miles, and estimated population
4,114,000. The Colonial possession,
situated in the East and West Indies,
embrace an area of 76,137 square miles,
with a total population of 29,550,000.
chiefly a grazing country. The cheese of
Gouda, Leyden & Edam is famous. There
are valuable fisheries along the coast
and, in various parts of the North Sea.
The diamond-cutting trade of Amsterdam is
the largest in the world. Among the chief
manufactures are the linens known as
"Hollands," the gin which goes
by the same name, Delft pottery and
Utrect carpets. Chief among the exports
are butter, cheese, live animals
(principally cows and sheep). Other
leading exports (mainly the produce of
the Dutch colonies) are coffee, mostly
exported to the United States, sugar, raw
cotton, tobacco, spices and dried fruits.
THE HAGUE, the capital, is a handsome,
fashionable, healthy city, intersected by
the great peninsula of south western
Asia, connected with Africa by the
Isthmus of Suez, and with the Asiatic
Continent by the Syrian Desert, has an
area estimated at 968,000 square miles,
of which one-third is irreclaimable
population is estimated at 3,700,000. The
whole of the West maritime region of
Arabia belongs to the Ottoman Empire,
other regions being under the Dominion of
the Sultans of Shomer, of Wahhabi and of
Oman or Muscat; while Hadramant, the
strip of coast region extending along the
Indian Ocean from Aden to Dofar, is
occupied by independent tribes. Aden, on
the S. coast, belongs to England and is
occupied as a military station.
the lowlands and upon the strips of
desert the heat is intense. In the
central highlands the climate is
delightful, and here corn, vegetables,
and most of the sub-tropical products are
grown with success.
Arabia the best coffee and dates are
produced and exported, besides gums,
myrrh, and various spices, senna and
other drugs, and pearls from the Persian
Gulf. Cotton, indigo and tobacco are also
cultivated. The principal domestic
animals are the camel, the celebrated
breed of horses, oxen, sheep and goats.
Koran is the basis of Arabian theology
and jurisprudence. "The Arabian
Nights Entertainments" still rank as
perhaps the most graceful and interesting
collection of fabulous and romantic lore
CHINESE EMPIRE, the oldest, most populous
and, after the Russian and British
Empires, the greatest in territorial
extent in the world, may be said to
occupy the whole of the eastern division
of the Asiatic continent south of Asiatic
Russia and east of British Burmah.
is no law of hereditary succession to the
throne, but it is left to each sovereign
to appoint his successor from among the
members of his family of a younger
generation than his own. The supreme
direction of the Empire is vested in the
Privy Council. The administration is
under the supreme direction of the
Cabinet, comprising four members, besides
two assistants from the Great College.
4,455,000 square miles. Population,
380,000,000. The capital is Pekin.
is singularly compact. The surface of the
country presents every variety from
Alpine regions to far extending tracts,
flat, alluvial and fertile. It contains
innumerable lakes and rivers, all
abundantly stored with fish. The climate
varies in the different quarters of the
country, and the soil is as various as
the climate. The richest soil is formed
by the detritus of the rivers.
is essentially an agricultural country.
The cultivation of rice (the staple food
of the Chinese), tea, cotton, hemp, sugar
and grain, and the manufacture of silk,
opium, paper, porcelain and lacquerware
are the principal industries.
is one of the first coal counties in the
world. The most renowned of the great
national works of China is the Great
Wall, 1,400 miles long. Great Britain
has, by treaty, right of access to
twenty-three Chinese ports.
a country of Asia, is bounded N. by
Turkestan, E. by the Punjab, S. by
Beloochistan, and W. by Persia. Its
mountainous character makes it a valuable
barrier for the protection of India. The
Hindoo Koosh mountains extend along the
northern frontier, rising in alpine
grandeur to heights of more than 20,000
government of Afghanistan is monarchical,
under one hereditary prince, entitled the
Ameer, whose power varies with his own
character and fortune.
estimated area is 278,000 square miles,
and the Ameer's subjects number about
4,000,000. Some independent mountain
tribes are scattered along the northwest
frontier of India. The Afghans are a
brave race, strongly influenced by
national sentiment, but addicted to
predatory strife, and treacherous beyond
even Asiatic bounds.
the winter of 1841, during the retreat of
the British by the Khyber Pass from
Cabul, the severity of the weather and
cruelty of the enemy spared neither woman
nor child, and, of a host numbering
15,000, only one man (Dr. Brydon) reached
to the inequality of surface and
irregular distribution of water, the
climate of Afghanistan varies greatly.
the high table-lands of the north, the
fruits of Europe grow wild; the fertile
terraces produce aromatic herbs, tobacco,
rhubarb and assafoetida; luxuriant Indian
vegetation covers the deep valleys; and
in the southern plains cotton and sugar
are cultivated. The country is rich in
copper and in other metals. The
production of silks and the manufacture
of felts, carpets and rosaries are some
of the principal industries.